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ݮֱ Caused a Baby Bump when Experts Expected a Drop. Here’s Why

During the ݮֱ pandemic, the U.S. initially saw a drop in births followed by a bump

A line chart shows birth prediction based on prepandemic chart and prediction based on pandemic unemployment in comparison with the actual number between 2016 and 2021.
Credit:

Amanda Montañez

Birth rates tend to decline during economic recessions or disasters, so many experts predicted that the ݮֱ pandemic would prompt people to have fewer children. A recent study of from 2015 through 2021, however, reveals there was actually a baby bump.

Demographers expected to see a decline in birth rate in December 2020, nine months after ݮֱ became a pandemic. But the decline started earlier than that. It was driven largely by a drop in births to people born outside the U.S.—especially people from China, Mexico and Latin America—who would have traveled here but were prevented by pandemic restrictions. Some of them would have been coming as immigrants, whereas others would have been visiting to secure U.S. citizenship for their babies before returning home.

In 2021 the birth rate bounced back even more than predicted. This reversal is attributable mainly to an increase in births to mothers born in the U.S. (except among Black women). The biggest increases in births occurred among women younger than 25 and those having their first child. Among women older than 25, the largest upticks in births were for those aged 30 to 34 and those with a college education. Because there is a lag in data on births, these results do not include the most recent trends. But data from California suggest births were still increasing as of early 2023.

Study co-author Janet Currie, an economist at Princeton University, speculates that working from home (for those who were able to) gave people more flexibility to start a family. In other words, Currie says, “if you made it easier for people to have children, maybe more of them would.”

Number of U.S. Births

The number of babies born from one month to the next is variable but tends to follow a fairly predictable pattern. Researchers suspected that ݮֱ’s economic impacts would alter this pattern, but surprisingly, the 2020 dip in births was not proportional to the rise in unemployment. And in 2021, the numbers rebounded sharply, making the net loss in births less severe than expected.

A line chart shows total monthly U.S. births from 2015 through 2021, along with the predicted numbers based on prepandemic trends and unemployment. In 2020 and early 2021 the actual numbers fell far below prepandemic trends but not as low as unemployment-based estimates, and later in 2021 they bounced back up above prepandemic trends.
Credit: Amanda Montañez; Source: “The ݮֱ-19 Baby Bump in the United States, by Martha J. Bailey Janet Currie and Hannes Schwandt, in PNAS, Vol. 120; August 15, 2023

U.S. Total Fertility Rates

Total fertility rate measures the expected number of children a woman will have in her lifetime based on current trends. In 2020 U.S. fertility fell to a record low, but the decline was largely driven by pandemic border restrictions, which kept those in other countries from giving birth in the U.S. Among U.S.-born mothers, fertility experienced a net increase from the start of 2020 to the end of 2021.

A line chart compares total monthly fertility rates for mothers born in and outside the U.S. from 2015 through 2021, with rates falling more dramatically among non-U.S.-born mothers during the pandemic.
Credit: Amanda Montañez; Source: “The ݮֱ-19 Baby Bump in the United States, by Martha J. Bailey Janet Currie and Hannes Schwandt, in PNAS, Vol. 120; August 15, 2023

Changes from Expected Trends

To measure ݮֱ’s effects on birth rates, it is useful to compare data from each month with what researchers think those numbers would have looked like had prepandemic trends continued. Since about 2007, U.S. fertility has been falling steadily. The pandemic initially seemed to amplify this trend, but among U.S.-born mothers, 2021 saw a “baby bump” of 5.1 percent above pre-ݮֱ estimates.

Bar charts show how monthly birth rates among mothers born in and outside the U.S. compared to prepandemic trends for each group from 2015 through 2021.
Credit: Amanda Montañez; Source: “The ݮֱ-19 Baby Bump in the United States, by Martha J. Bailey Janet Currie and Hannes Schwandt, in PNAS, Vol. 120; August 15, 2023

How Changes Varied among Specific Groups

These charts show how birth rates shifted in different ways for different demographic groups. Each of the specified subgroups pushed the numbers up or down to arrive at a net gain or loss in total births over the 2020–2021 period, compared with pre-ݮֱ predictions.

Waterfall charts show how 2020 and 2021 birth rates among specific demographic groups pushed numbers above or below what was expected based on prepandemic trends and how data for each of those groups contributed to the total difference among a larger subset of the population.
Credit: Amanda Montañez; Source: “The ݮֱ-19 Baby Bump in the United States, by Martha J. Bailey Janet Currie and Hannes Schwandt, in PNAS, Vol. 120; August 15, 2023
Tanya Lewis is a senior editor covering health and medicine at ݮֱ. She writes and edits stories for the website and print magazine on topics ranging from ݮֱ to organ transplants. She also co-hosts Your Health, Quickly on ݮֱ's podcast Science, Quickly and writes ݮֱ's weekly Health & Biology newsletter. She has held a number of positions over her seven years at ݮֱ, including health editor, assistant news editor and associate editor at ݮֱ Mind. Previously, she has written for outlets that include Insider, Wired, Science News, and others. She has a degree in biomedical engineering from Brown University and one in science communication from the University of California, Santa Cruz.
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Amanda Montañez has been a graphics editor at ݮֱ since 2015. She produces and art directs information graphics for the ݮֱ website and print magazine. Amanda has a bachelor's degree in studio art from Smith College and a master's in biomedical communications from the University of Toronto. Before starting in journalism, she worked as a freelance medical illustrator.
More by Amanda Montañez
ݮֱ Magazine Vol 329 Issue 5This article was originally published with the title “The ݮֱ Baby Bump” in ݮֱ Magazine Vol. 329 No. 5 (), p. 90
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1223-90